In May 1908 Major Heckstall Smith, secretary of the IYRU wrote: “The rules of yacht racing are now the same in all the countries of Europe. A few years ago a state of hopeless chaos reigned everywhere. Different systems of measurement and classification and different codes of sailing rules prevailed, and the average yachtsman was quite unable to master them all. If he was accustomed to race in England he was very much at sea when he visited Germany, and, similarly, he was apt to find himself high and dry on the coast of France. It was very disheartening, and the situation discouraged not a few from attempting to race beyond their own waters.